Map, Flatmap and Filter in Scala

This post is part 4 of the Functional Programming in Scala series. You can view all the posts in the series here.


Three of the most common methods used on collections in Scala are map, flatMap and filter:

  • map will perform the function given in parentheses on every element in the collection
  • filter will only return elements of a collection that satisfy the expression provided
  • flatmap will first perform the map method on a list and then then flatten method

We often chain these methods together to achieve iteration over collections of elements.

A more readable way to write these chains, is to use a for-comprehension.

Map, FlatMap and Filter in Scala

If you have done any significant programming in Scala, you will likely have used one or all of map, flatmap and filter at some point. We will look at all three of them in this post.

Let’s start by creating and printing out a very simple List:

val list = List(1,2,3)
println(list) // prints out 'List(1,2,3)'

Note that this list gets created by calling the List.apply() method on the companion list object.

List comes with standard implementations to extract the head and tail:



We can call the map implementation on the list like so:

println( + 1))
println( + " is a number"))

This will iterate over every element in the list, and apply the function in the parentheses.

Another syntax of writing the map method is : { x =>
  x * 2


We can use the filter method if we only want to keep certain members of the list. For example, to only keep the even numbers:

println(list.filter(_ % 2 == 0))


The flatmap method is similar to the map method. The difference is the inner grouping of an item is removed and a sequence is generated. Let’s say that we have a function that turns a single element into another list:

val toPair = (x: Int) => List(x, x+1)

If we call our original list with flatmap and this function, then we should see the concatenation of the application of toPair on each element of the list.

println(list.flatMap(toPair)) // prints out 'List(1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4)'

Print all Combinations of two Lists

Say that we wanted to print out all the combinations of the following two lists:

val numbers = List(1,2,3,4)
val chars = List('a', 'b', 'c', 'd')

In imperative programming, we might be tempted to do this with a couple of loops. In functional programming in Scala, we could instead do something like this:

val combinations = numbers.flatMap(n => => "" + c + n))

We use flatmap, because for each element in numbers we are going to generate a new list. And then for every elements in chars we are going to return the string composed from the character and the number.

If you added a third element into the mix, such as colors:

val colors = List("black", "white")

Then you use two flatmap methods, and put a map in the most inside block:

val combinations = numbers.flatMap(n => chars.flatMap(c => => "" + c + n + "-" + color)))


Next let’s look at the foreach method. This is similar to map, only that it receives a function returning a unit.

This will print all the numbers in the list on a separate line:



The flatmaps that we wrote above are quite difficult to read. In Scala, there is a more readable format that we can use. This format is called for-comprehensions. We could rewrite the combinations method above like this:

val forCombinations = for {
  n <- numbers
  c <- chars
  color <- colors
} yield "" + c + n + "-" + color

This is exactly equivalent of the combinations method that we wrote previously.

Filter in For-Comprehensions

If you want to filter something out, you can put a guard in the for-comprehension. For example, to only keep even numbers:

val forCombinationsGuard = for {
  n <- numbers if n % 2 == 0  c <- chars
  color <- colors
} yield "" + c + n + "-" + color

This applies a filter on numbers. If we rewrote this in full, it would look like this:

val combinationsWithColorWithFilter = numbers.filter(_ % 2 == 0).flatMap(n => chars.flatMap(c => => "" + c + n + "-" + color)))

If you wanted to do something with side effects in a for-comprehension, such as println:

for {
  n <- numbers
} println(n)

Source Code

As always, the source code for this post is available on Github.